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10 Gejala Kanker Payudara Stadium 4 yang Bisa Dilihat Langsung

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ArenaWanita.com – Dari beragam jenis penyakit yang bisa menyerang perempuan, kanker payudara menjadi pemicu kematian terbesar selain kanker rahim. Itu sebabnya, perempuan diwajibkan mengenali kondisi organ tubuhnya dengan lebih baik, agar ketika ada perubahan tak biasa segera bisa dideteksi dini.

Sebab jika diketahui lebih awal, bukan tak mungkin kanker payudara bisa disembuhkan hingga 98 persen. Namun, sayangnya kesadaran dan pengetahuan akan hal ini belum merata.

10 Gejala Kanker Payudara Stadium 4 yang Bisa Dilihat Langsung

Yang sering terjadi, perempuan baru tahu dirinya mengidap kanker payudara setelah stadiumnya sudah lanjut. Dan secara garis besar, kanker payudara dikategorikan ke dalam empat tahapan, yaitu:

Stadium 1: merupakan tahap paling awal dari kanker payudara. Diameter tumor pada tahap ini biasanya tidak melebihi dua centimeter. Tumor-tumor kecil berkelompok mungkin ditemukan pada kelenjar getah bening.

Stadium 2: proses penyebaran kanker dimulai di tahap ini. Kanker mungkin tampak di beberapa kelenjar getah bening, dan tumor dalam payudara akan membesar namun tidak melebihi lima centimeter.

Stadium 3: dokter mengklasifikasikan tahapan ini sebagai stadium lanjut, di mana penyebaran sel kanker sudah memengaruhi hampir keseluruhan kelenjar getah bening dan jaringan dada. Di tahap ini kanker terkadang menjalar ke jaringan kulit dada, menyebabkan peradangan dan luka.

Stadium 4: kanker telah menyebar ke seluruh tubuh.

Kanker payudara stadium 4 digolongkan sebagai stadium terparah yang membutuhkan terapi intensif dan berkelanjutan. Berikut ini adalah 10 tanda dan gejala paling umum dari kanker payudara stadium 4:

1. Benjolan di payudara

Benjolan tumor payudara di tahap awal kanker amat jarang bisa terlihat atau dirasakan. Untuk mendeteksinya, dokter akan melakukan mammogram.

Namun, jika sudah mencapai stadium 4, benjolan tadi sangat mudah dilihat dan dirasakan. Biasanya ada di bawah ketiak dan sekitarnya. Jika ini terjadi, tindakan medis yang dianjurkan dokter adalah operasi pengangkatan tumor. Jika tidak, pasien akan terus merasakan bengkak pada payudara dan area sekitarnya.

2. Perubahan kulit

Kanker payudara dapat menimbulkan perubahan pada kulit. Terutama di area puting. Kulit akan terasa gatal atau kesemutan, terlihat memerah, menebal. Bahkan, ada juga yang kering dan pecah-pecah.

Penyebabnya adalah peradangan yang ditimbulkan sel kanker. Di mana jalur getah bening tertutup dan menimbulkan kemerahan, pembengkakan, dan kulit mencekung ke dalam. Semua kanker payudara stadium 4 memiliki gejala peradangan kulit yang serupa. Itu sebabnya tanda awal kanker bisa terdeteksi dari penebalan payudara dan warna kemerahan di kulit.

3. Keluarnya cairan dari puting tanpa sebab

Cairan yang keluar dari puting secara tiba-tiba adalah gejala yang umum ditemukan di semua tahapan kanker payudara. Cairan yang menetes keluar bisa berwarna kuning seperti nanah, darah, atau seperti air biasa.

4. Pembengkakan

Pada tahap awal kanker, walau ukuran dan penampilan payudara terlihat normal, namun sel kanker sedang tumbuh dan berkembang di dalamnya. Di tahapan lanjutan, pasien mungkin akan mulai menyadari adanya pembengkakan di area payudara dan di bawah ketiak, di mana kelenjar getah bening berada. Pembengkakan akan mulai terasa sangat jelas dan menyakitkan di stadium 4.

5. Rasa sakit dan tidak nyaman

Seiring pertumbuhan kanker, pasien akan merasakan sakit dan tidak nyaman di area payudara mereka. Apalagi jika sel kanker menyebabkan peradangan kemerahan, atau jika iritasi kulit terjadi.

Tumor berukuran besar juga menyebabkan sakit dan tekanan yang tidak nyaman pada payudara. Rasa sakit di kulit mungkin juga diakibatkan oleh luka bakar akibat terapi radiasi.

6. Kelelahan

Kelelahan merupakan gejala yang paling sering dilaporkan muncul pada pasien kanker payudara. Kelelahan melanda setidaknya seperempat populasi pasien selama terapi berlangsung, lainnya merasakan kelelahan setelah menjalani terapi. Pada stadium 4, kelelahan akan menjadi semakin tak tertahankan dan sulit untuk ditangani.

7. Insomnia

Beberapa pasien melaporkan menopause sebagai hasil terapi kanker payudara, dan mengalami “kepanasan” (hot flashes) yang membuat mereka sulit tidur nyenyak di malam hari. Kanker payudara stadium 4 dapat menyebabkan rasa sakit dan tidak nyaman yang mengganggu tidur.

Kehadiran insomnia pada pasien kanker payudara seringkali luput untuk untuk ditangani. Para ahli merekomendasikan pasien untuk menjalankan terapi kognitif dan perubahan gaya hidup daripada mengharuskan mereka untuk mengonsumsi pil tidur untuk membantu memperbaiki pola tidurnya.

8. Kram perut, hilang nafsu makan, penurunan berat badan

Kanker dan juga terapi penyembuhannya dapat menyebabkan mual, muntah, diare, dan sembelit. Obat-obatan, stress akibat penyakit, dan insomnia juga dapat mengganggu sistem pencernaan.

Saat hal itu terjadi, pasien biasanya semakin sulit untuk konsumsi makanan sehat yang dianjurkan. Malah pada makanan tertentu menyebabkan mereka sakit perut dan sembelit karena sistem pencernaan kekurangan serat dan nutrisi.

Yang mengkhawatirkan jika lama-kelamaan pasien kehilangan nafsu makan dan kesulitan untuk mencerna makanan yang mereka perlukan. Penurunan berat badan akan sangat drastis terlihat dan menyebabkan malnutrisi.

9. Napas terengah-engah

Sesak dada, sulit untuk menarik napas dalam-dalam, dan kesulitan bernapas mungkin dapat terjadi pada kanker stadium 4. Terkadang, gejala ini mengindikasikan bahwa kanker telah menjalar hingga paru-paru.

Kemo dan terapi radiasi adalah salah satu faktor risiko dari gejala ini. Kesulitan bernapas di tahap ini akan diikuti oleh batuk kering kronis.

10. Gejala lain yang berkaitan dengan penyebaran kanker

Penyebaran kanker dapat memunculkan beberapa gejala yang dapat terdeteksi.

Tulang: Saat kanker menyebar, sel tersebut akan merusak fisiologis tulang, menyebabkan rasa ngilu dan meningkatnya risiko keretakan tulang. Gejala pada tulang biasanya ditemukan di pinggul, tulang belakang, lengan, kaki, rusuk, atau tengkorak kepala. Rasa sakit dan tidak nyaman pada tulang juga akan menyulitkan pasien untuk berjalan.

Hati: kanker hati mungkin tidak akan memunculkan gejala selama beberapa waktu. Namun pada stadium akhir, pasien akan mengalami sakit kuning, demam, dan penurunan berat badan secara signifikan.

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10 gejala kanker payudara stadium 4 yang bisa dilihat langsung
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